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like much new mathematics were not welcomed by all.In 1299 there was a law in the commercial center of Florence forbidding their use; to this day this law is respected when we write the amount on a check in longhand ., undergoing a number of changes on the way.On the other hand, Brahmagupta was one of the key mathematicians in the world because he invented the idea of zero." "They were learned with a strong background in maths and were well versed in the local languages.And there was strong motivation: Pope Gregory XIII set up a committee to look into modernising the Julian calendar. "Similarly there was a rising need for better navigational methods including keeping accurate time on voyages of exploration and large prizes were offered to mathematicians who specialised in astronomy."But there is also little knowledge of the medieval form of the local language of Kerala, Malayalam, in which some of most seminal texts, such as the Yuktibhasa, from much of the documentation of this remarkable mathematics is written." "For some unfathomable reasons, the standard of evidence required to claim transmission of knowledge from East to West is greater than the standard of evidence required to knowledge from West to East." The Brahmi numerals that have been found in caves and on coins around Mumbai from around the first century AD use horizontal lines for 1 to 3.The early passion which Indian civilization had for high numbers was a significant factor contributing to the discovery of the place-value system, and not only offered the Indians the incentive to go beyond the "calculable" physical world, but also led to an understanding (much earlier than in our civilization) of the notion of mathematical infinity itself.
; that the differential equation for the sine function, infinite difference form, was described by Indian mathematician-astronomers in the fifth century CE?
A favourite subject of theirs was Indian mathematics..." etc.
where he gave a full account of the Hindu numerals which was the first to expound the system with its digits 0,1,2,3,....,9 and decimal place value which was a fairly recent arrival from India.
and provided the West with the key to the most far reaching of all the mechanical instrument on which its control of nature has been built, when it presented to Europe through the medium of Arabia the device of the cypher (and the decimal notation) upon which all modern system of numeration depend.
even so, India today or tomorrow, will, I am confident, revolutionize western doctrines of progress by demonstrating the insufficiency and lack of finality of much of the West's present system of human values.""The Indian mind has always had for calculations and the handling of numbers an extraordinary inclination, ease and power, such as no other civilization in history ever possessed to the same degree.